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Chemistry

Free online chemistry lesson for elementary school, middle school and high school.
chemistry high school
 

Science class

Chemistry

Electricity

Optics

Mechanics
Mechanics lessons
Water
Water on Earth
Changes of state in the nature: the water cycle
Water in human body
Test for water
Properties of water in different states
States of matter
States of matter and its changes
Boiling water
Water: freezing and melting
Changes of state: mass and volume
Molecules in different states of matter

Mixtures and solutions
Heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures
Decantation
Centrifugation
Filtration
Vaporization of water
Distillation
Chromatography
Dissolving a solid in water
Conservation of mass on dissolving
Miscibility in water

Mass and volume
Volume and its units
Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder
Mass and its units
Measuring the mass of a liquid
Mass of a liter of water

Air and atmosphere
Atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere protect us
Threats to the Earth's atmosphere
Composition of air
Air and life
Pressure
Atoms and molecules
Molecules
Molecules in mixtures and pure substances
Molecules and states of matter
Atoms
Composition of molecules
Constituents of the atoms
The electrical neutrality of the atom

Combustions
Basics of combustion
The combustion of carbon
The combustion of butane
Atoms and chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
Chemical equations
Law of conservation of mass
Chemical synthesis
Metals

Most common metals

How to distinguish metals ?

Corrosion of metals

Electrical conductivity of solid materials

Electrons and free electrons

Electric current in metals
Ions
The conductivity of aqueous solutions
Aqueous solutions and ions
The direction of movement of ions
Formation of ions
Tests for ions
Acidic and basic solutions
pH of aqueous solutions
Ions in acidic and basic solutions
Dilution of acids and bases
Composition of hydrochloric acid
Chemical reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid

Electrochemical cells and chemical energy
Chemical reaction beteween a copper sulphate solution and zinc
Copper sulfate and zinc battery
Basics of electrochemical cell



















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Mixtures and solutions

Chromatography

               
1) Usefulness of chromatography

Chromatography is used to separate different colored substances in a mixture in order  to determine its composition.

2) Chromatography of a mint syrup: preparation

We first need to prepare the chromatography paper:
- The chromatography paper can be simply realized with a retangle of filter paper.
- A line must be drawn at about 1 cm from the bottom (using a pencil because ink can contain dyes that could disrupt chromatography): it is the origin line.
- A drop of mint syrup is deposited with a pipette on the origin line.

Chromatography paper


We then prepare the chromatography tank:
- This can be a simple beaker.
- Some water is poured ( about one centimeter ).

chromatography tank


3) Realization of chromatography


The chromatography paper must be suspended in the tank and must soak in water without wetting the origin line.
Through capillary action, the water is sucked through the filter paper and rises (such as coffee that rises in a sugar).
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The rising water brings with it the drop of mint syrup from which are separated a yellow dye and a blue dye.


chromatography of mint syrup

This experiment shows that the green dye from mint syrup is actually a mixture of two colors: a yellow dye and blue dye.

4) Principle of chromatography

The water that rises in the chromatography paper brings with it a blue and a yellow dyes, but yellow dye moves slowlier than blue, they therefore separate and form two distinct spots.
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