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Chemistry

Free online chemistry lesson for elementary school, middle school and high school.
chemistry high school
 

Science class

Chemistry

Electricity

Optics

Mechanics
Mechanics lessons
Water
Water on Earth
Changes of state in the nature: the water cycle
Water in human body
Test for water
Properties of water in different states
States of matter
States of matter and its changes
Boiling water
Water: freezing and melting
Changes of state: mass and volume
Molecules in different states of matter

Mixtures and solutions
Heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures
Decantation
Centrifugation
Filtration
Vaporization of water
Distillation
Chromatography
Dissolving a solid in water
Conservation of mass on dissolving
Miscibility in water

Mass and volume
Volume and its units
Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder
Mass and its units
Measuring the mass of a liquid
Mass of a liter of water

Air and atmosphere
Atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere protect us
Threats to the Earth's atmosphere
Composition of air
Air and life
Pressure
Atoms and molecules
Molecules
Molecules in mixtures and pure substances
Molecules and states of matter
Atoms
Composition of molecules
Constituents of the atoms
The electrical neutrality of the atom

Combustions
Basics of combustion
The combustion of carbon
The combustion of butane
Atoms and chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
Chemical equations
Law of conservation of mass
Chemical synthesis
Metals

Most common metals

How to distinguish metals ?

Corrosion of metals

Electrical conductivity of solid materials

Electrons and free electrons

Electric current in metals
Ions
The conductivity of aqueous solutions
Aqueous solutions and ions
The direction of movement of ions
Formation of ions
Tests for ions
Acidic and basic solutions
pH of aqueous solutions
Ions in acidic and basic solutions
Dilution of acids and bases
Composition of hydrochloric acid
Chemical reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid

Electrochemical cells and chemical energy
Chemical reaction beteween a copper sulphate solution and zinc
Copper sulfate and zinc battery
Basics of electrochemical cell



















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Air and atmosphere

Threats to the Earth's atmosphere

   
The atmosphere is polluted by gases that humans produce (cars, industries etc).

- The fumes produced during combustions consist of microparticles that are dispersed into the air. These fumes are responsible for the blackening of the facades of buildings and their degradation.

- Acid rains form after releases to air of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. These rains are harmful to vegetation and can destroy entire forests. They can also damage some building materials (marble, iron, aluminum, zinc). The limitation of emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides has helped reduce this phenomenon.
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- Destruction of the ozone layer is caused by chlorinated compounds released into the air. The ozone layer has regularly regressed: its thickness decreases and even tends to disappear completely at the poles.


- The amplification of greenhouse effect leads to a general increase in temperatures.
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon necessary to maintain temperatures favorable for life on Earth but the rejection of some gases (mainly carbon dioxide and methane) amplifies it.
 If this rise of temperatures continues it will be responsible for dramatic changes. This change may:
- favors the expansion of arid areas
- multiplies extreme weather events such as cyclones
- changes vegetation
- causes a rise in sea level making disappear many coastal areas and islands,
- rises acidity of oceans and make disappear many marine species.
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