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Chemistry

Electricity

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Mechanics
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Water
Water on Earth
Changes of state in the nature: the water cycle
Water in human body
Test for water
Properties of water in different states
States of matter
States of matter and its changes
Boiling water
Water: freezing and melting
Changes of state: mass and volume
Molecules in different states of matter

Mixtures and solutions
Heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures
Decantation
Centrifugation
Filtration
Vaporization of water
Distillation
Chromatography
Dissolving a solid in water
Conservation of mass on dissolving
Miscibility in water

Mass and volume
Volume and its units
Measuring volume with a graduated cylinder
Mass and its units
Measuring the mass of a liquid
Mass of a liter of water

Air and atmosphere
Atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere protect us
Threats to the Earth's atmosphere
Composition of air
Air and life
Pressure
Atoms and molecules
Molecules
Molecules in mixtures and pure substances
Molecules and states of matter
Atoms
Composition of molecules
Constituents of the atoms
The electrical neutrality of the atom

Combustions
Basics of combustion
The combustion of carbon
The combustion of butane
Atoms and chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
Chemical equations
Law of conservation of mass
Chemical synthesis
Metals

Most common metals

How to distinguish metals ?

Corrosion of metals

Electrical conductivity of solid materials

Electrons and free electrons

Electric current in metals
Ions
The conductivity of aqueous solutions
Aqueous solutions and ions
The direction of movement of ions
Formation of ions
Tests for ions
Acidic and basic solutions
pH of aqueous solutions
Ions in acidic and basic solutions
Dilution of acids and bases
Composition of hydrochloric acid
Chemical reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid

Electrochemical cells and chemical energy
Chemical reaction beteween a copper sulphate solution and zinc
Copper sulfate and zinc battery
Basics of electrochemical cell



















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Sates of matter

Water: freezing and melting ( or solidification and fusion )

   

The essential about freezing and melting temperature


Freezing of pure water


We can cause the freezing of the pure water by immersing it in a refrigerant mixture having a temperature below 0 ° C. Temperature measurements then show that during solidification, pure water keeps a constant temperature of 0 ° C.
The solidification of pure water always occurs at a constant temperature of 0 ° C

Freezing of salt water

During the freezing of a salt water it can be observed that its temperature: regularly decreases below 0°C until it is completely frozen.
More generally, during the freezing of a mixture, its temperature keeps on decreasing below the freezing temperature of the pure substance.
This conclusion is also true for the vaporization, melting, liquefaction, sublimation or deposition of a mixture.
Furthermore, measuring the freezing point of a substance is a method used to check its purity ( this method is called cryoscopy )
  
      ice and salt water
Photo: Liquid salt water and ice can coexist at negative temperatures because salt water freeze below 0°C


Photo courtesy of
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce
Melting of pure water

Measurements of temperature in melting ice, would show that pure water keeps a temperature of 0°C.
The melting of pure water always occurs at a constant temperature of 0°C.
The melting temperature of pure water is therefore the same as its freezing temperature and it is also true for all other pure substances: melting and freezing occur at the same temperature.

Melting of another substance: cyclohexane

Cyclohexane is a pure substance whose fusion can be compared to that of pure water.
Its melting occurs at a constant temperature, like pure water, but at 6 ° C while the pure water has a melting temperature of 0 ° C
A pure substance changes state at a constant temperature that is characteristic of this substance.
Particularly a melting or freezing at the constant temperature of 0°C is a characteristic that allows to identify pure water.


Learn more


- Salt and the freezing point of water: This article explains why freezing point of salt water is below 0°C and describes molecules of water in this solution.

- Freezing and melting: notes about temperature, energy exchanges and molecules during freezing and melting of various substances.

- The effect of dissolved Salt and sugar on the melting rate of ice
Projet de sciences par un élève qui a fait un travail très sérieux afin de comparer les effets du sucre et du sel sur la température de congélation de l'eau.

 


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